Day 1 :
Medical Acupuncture and Pain Management Clinic, Brazil
Huang Wei Ling, born in Taiwan, raised and graduated in medicine in Brazil, specialist in infectious and parasitic diseases, a General Practitioner and Parenteral and Enteral Medical Nutrition Therapist. Once in charge of the Hospital Infection Control Service of the City of Franca’s General Hospital, she was responsible for the control of all prescribed antimicrobial medication and received an award for the best paper presented at the Brazilian Hospital Infection Control Congress in 1998. Since 1997, she works with the approach and treatment of all chronic diseases in a holistic way, with treatment guided through the teachings of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Hippocrates. Researcher in the University of São Paulo, in the Ophthalmology department from 2012 to 2013.Author of the theory Constitutional Homeopathy of the Five Elements Based on Traditional Chinese Medicine.
- Neurology Insights and Innovations | CNS and Brain disorders | Neurodegenerative Disorders | Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery | Neuroinfections and Neuroimmunology | Cognitive Neuroscience | Neurological Disorders | Neurotherapeutics | Neuropathology | Neurocognitive Disorder | Neurooncology | Cognitive Control | Common Neurological and Psychiatric Diseases | Cognitive and Behavioral Neuroscience
Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, Ukraine
Maryna Skok has completed her PhD at the age of 26 years and defended her Doctor of Science theses in Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, Kyiv, in 2006. She is a Head of Laboratory of Cell Receptor Immunology in Molecular Immunology Department at Palladin Institute of Biochemistry. She has published about 100 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an editorial board member in Frontiers of Immunology (Inflammation). She is a Member of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine since 2018. Her scientific interests deal with the role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors localized in both the plasma membrane and mitochondria in neuroinflammation and cell survival.
COVID-19 caused by SARS-Cov-2 infection affects multiple organs and tissues including the brain. Post-COVID patients often suffer from cognitive disorders like depression, intellectual weakness and memory loss. The fragment 674-685 of SARS-Cov-2 spike protein is homologous to the fragment 27-37 of α-cobratoxin underlying its interaction with α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) known to be involved in memory and cognition. The biochemical studies demonstrated direct interaction of 674-685 spike protein fragments with the portion 179-190 of α7 nAChR. We immunized mice with 674-685 peptide coupled to a protein carrier and observed an impairment of episodic memory measured in novel object recognition test starting from day 14 after initial immunization and further progressing after the second immunization that coincided with the peaks of (674-685)-specific antibodies in the blood. The antibodies of such specificity were also found in the brain of mice sacrificed on day 14 after the second immunization. The antibody presence was accompanied with the decrease of α7 nAChRs and increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNFα in the brain. Choline prevented (674-685)-specific antibody binding to BSA-coupled (674-685) peptide indicating that the antibody could bind choline. When injected regularly in (674-685)-immunized mice choline prevented memory loss and the decrease of α7 nAChRs in the brain. Finally, immunoglobulins of (674-685)-immunized mice, passively transferred to non-immunized mice, decreased their episodic memory within two days. The mechanisms of such effect, as well as its relevance to COVID-19 will be discussed.
Aga Khan University Hospital, Pakistan
Syed Umar Hasan a research scientist interested in learning more about how brain activity influences and shapes human behaviour. Project planning and administration, data analysis and interpretation, and the development and implementation of research tools are among my specialties.
This network meta-analysis aims to compare various benzodiazepines and their route of administration using the data published exclusively in Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs). Two thousand two hundred sixty-three children presenting with an episode of seizure to ER or to a paramedic where they were administered a benzodiazepine as the first-line treatment was included. All the outcomes were measured for their mean with 95% CI and rank probability. The primary outcome was the number of successful seizure cessation [Figure 1]. Secondary outcomes were the time interval between drug administration and seizure cessation, the time interval between patient arrival and seizure cessation and the number of episodes of seizures recurrence after drug administration. For the number of successful cessations, intramuscular midazolam showed the highest mean and the best rank probability of 0.881 (0.65) and 57.9%, respectively. For the time of cessation, both Intravenous Lorazepam (IVL) and intravenous diazepam showed a mean of 3.30 (1.30) with IVL having the highest rank probability of 32%. For total time of cessation, intranasal midazolam showed the best mean and rank probability with a value of 4.3 (1.1) and 55%, respectively. Buccal midazolam showed the lowest mean with a value of 0.106 (0.084) for the rate of recurrence. Although there was no significant difference between the treatments, but based on the rank probability, IVL shows more promising results for patients who already have an established intravenous line, the first line of treatment should be INM as it shows the highest rank probability in total time with second highest successful cessation rate.
Ibn Tofail University, Morocco
Jihane Chaibat is 30 year’s doctoral student at the faculty of sciences ibn tofail kénitra in Morocco. His thesis subject is the study of the impact of heavy metals on mental and behavioral health; he led the writing of 3 scientiﬁc articles and member of several researches in neuroscience.
The main objective of this work is to study the effect of lead acetate on behavior of anxiety and depression in male and female Wistar rats. The experimental study is carried out on young rats of a number of 40, the animals are divided into 4 batches experimental, control batch and 3 batches exposed to successive doses of 0.25 mg/kg, 0.5 mg/kg and 1 mg/kg of lead acetate. The metal is administered daily at 4:00 p.m. by injection under cutaneous and for a period of 8 weeks. At the end of the various treatments, the animals were subjected to the Open ﬁeld Test (OFT), the raised cross maze test for determine the level of anxiety and the forced swimming test to elucidate the level of depression.
The results obtained showed that anxiety and depression behaviors are clearly expressed in rats poisoned by lead acetate, suggesting that this metal induces antigenic and depressive effects. In addition, the acuteness of depression and anxiety is accentuated, however, as the concentration of lead increases, which reveals the effect of dependent. Our results conﬁrm that lead causes side effects behavioral issues such as anxiety and depression.
Helena MRC Freire brings her expertise in physiology and cell biology to improve health and well-being. Her therapeutic proposal of electrical vagal stimulation in the model of neuropathic pain induced by responsive chemotherapy creates new ways to improve health. She built this model and is evaluating the analgesic potential of paVNS (percutaneous auricular Vagus Nerve Stimulation) in the neuroscience laboratory of Hospital Sirio Libanes.
Oxaliplatin-Induced Neuropathic Pain (OINP) negatively impacts the patients' quality of life. OINP preventive or symptomatic treatments are generally ineffective, so the investigation of new therapeutic approaches is required. In this sense, we aimed to investigate the preemptive effect of percutaneous auricular Vagus Nerve Stimulation (paVNS) on OINP in rats.
Male Wistar rats were injected with Oxaliplatin (OXA) or saline (i.p) for two weeks, three times per week. paVNS was applied for 30 min, in a non-sequential random low frequency previously to each OXA session. maVNS had the needles inserted, but without stimulation. Animals were evaluated for hyperalgesia and allodynia, mechanical and thermal, before, immediately and after the end of treatments. Depressive-like behavior was evaluated six days after the end of treatment. The neuronal (Egr-1), microglial (Iba-1) and astrocytic (GFAP) immunoreactivity was investigated in the Spinal Dorsal Horn (SDH). Study approved by the Ethics Committee on the Use of Animals at Hospital Sírio-Libanês (CEUA 2021-03).
The OXA sessions induced thermal (p˂0.0092) and mechanical (p˂0.0005) hyperalgesia; thermal (p˂0.0113) and mechanical (p˂0.0049) allodynia and depressive-like behavior (p˂0.0001) in the rats immediately 3,5 and 7 days after the OXA treatment when compared with saline rats. paVNS treatment prevented all OPIN phenomena and the depressive-like behavior. maVNS therapy attenuated the painful behaviors, which was not maintained over time. Also, paVNS treatment reduced the OXA-induced hyperactivation of neurons (p˂0.0001) microglia (p=0.0043) and astrocyte (p˂0.0001) in the SDH, comparing with OXA and saline groups.
The preemptive use of paVNS inhibited the OXA-induced painful and depressive behaviors, which was accompanied by reversion of spinal glial and neuronal hyper activation. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of the functional mechanisms of vagal stimulation, elucidating its potential therapeutic value in OINP management.
Al-Azhar University, Egypt
Abed completed a three-year residency program in Al-Azhar University hospitals; one of the leading medical teaching institutes in his country. Through which, he obtained his Master degree in Neuropsychiatry, Al-Azhar University, excellent degree, Nov 2019. Also, he spent a full year of good training in the neurology department at Maadi Military Hospital, now he work as assistant lecturer at neurology department, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt. Despite his clinical competency, he is an ambitious neurologist who is still keeping learning and gaining new skills in the field of Neurology. During his years of work, he was consistent, dedicated, enthusiastic and exhibiting great care of his work. He has incredible creative energies and a refreshing idealism tempered only enough to accomplish what needs to be done. Moreover, he achieved many academic degrees, much international publication in different fields of neurology.
Background: Despite the high prevalence of cerebrovascular stroke, headache attributed to ischemic strokes is often undertreated and overlooked. The aim is to detect the relation of a post-stroke headache to cerebrovascular pathology and changes in hemodynamics through a high-resolution duplex ultrasound examination.
Methods: This is a prospective case-control study that was conducted in Kasralainy hospital, Cairo University and Al-Azhar University hospitals from January 2021 to August 2021. The study was conducted on 239 patients who presented with an acute ischemic stroke. Patients were subdivided into two groups; Group I included patients with headache attributed to ischemic stroke (cases) and Group II included headache-free stroke patients (controls). History included headache characteristics and risk factors [Table 1]. Clinical and radiological examination was performed to detect the type of stroke. Ultrasound duplex examination of the extracranial and intracranial cerebrovascular system was carried for both groups.
Results: Group I included 112 patients (mean age 57.66 ± 6.59 years); Group II included 127 patients (mean age 57.73 ± 7.89 years). Post-stroke headache was more frequent in patients with posterior circulation infarction (58%). Post-stroke headache was reported within 7 days post-stroke in (61.6%) of patients. Pre-stroke headache was an independent predictor for post-stroke headache occurrence (OR=28.187, 95% CI: 6.612-120.158, P<0.001). Collateral opening [Figure 1] and various degrees of intracranial vascular stenosis were strong predictors of headache occurrence (OR=25.071, 95% CI: 6.498-96.722, P<0.001).
Conclusion: Post-stroke-headache is a common phenomenon especially in patients with pre-stroke headache, history of old stroke, posterior circulation infarction and large artery disease. This headache was of moderate-intensity with clinical characteristics of tension-type. The intracranial cerebrovascular pathological changes including opening of the collateral channels and variable degrees of stenosis of cerebrovascular systems were implicated in the production of that headache.